We are NOT authorized by Govt of India for Yellow Fever Vaccination

Friday, June 9, 2017

Act Swiftly To Prevent Possible Yellow Fever Outbreak, Public Health Officials Urged

Well-known medical practitioner, Dr Winston Dawes, is raising fears that there may be an outbreak of Yellow Fever and other mosquito-borne illnesses if local public health officials do not act swiftly in the aftermath of the recent heavy rains and flooding.
Dawes says public health officials need to go beyond fogging and intensify public education since the mosquitos that transmit the diseases are normally found in and around homes.
The former senior medical officer of the May Pen Hospital says there is a reported increase in the mosquito population in Clarendon.
The parish was the worst affected by the recent heavy rains that triggered widespread flooding.
He says with reports of an outbreak of Yellow Fever in the South and Central America, there is an urgent need for local officials to act now.
Dawes says a similar occurrence here would have a devastating impact on the economy.

Friday, June 2, 2017

Areas & Maps for Africa & South America for Yellow Fever Vaccine recommended countries, courtesy CDC, June 2017


Areas of recommended yellow fever vaccine (yellow), vaccine generally not recommended (dark green) and not recommended (light green). Courtesy of the CDC.
Areas of recommended yellow fever vaccine (yellow), vaccine generally not recommended (dark green) and not recommended (light green). Courtesy of the CDC.
Areas of recommended yellow fever vaccine (yellow), vaccine generally not recommended (dark green) and not recommended (light green). Courtesy of the CDC.



Areas of recommended yellow fever vaccine (yellow), vaccine generally not recommended (dark green) and not recommended (light green). Courtesy of the CDC.
Areas of recommended yellow fever vaccine (yellow), vaccine generally not recommended (dark green) and not recommended (light green). Courtesy of the CDC.



Areas of recommended yellow fever vaccine (yellow), vaccine generally not recommended (dark green) and not recommended (light green). Courtesy of the CDC.
Areas of recommended yellow fever vaccine (yellow), vaccine generally not recommended (dark green) and not recommended (light green). Courtesy of the CDC.
Areas of recommended yellow fever vaccine (yellow), vaccine generally not recommended (dark green) and not recommended (light green). Courtesy of the CDC.
Source

Yellow fever outbreak emphasizes travel-related infections, prevention, AAP News, June 2017

Deborah Bloch, M.D., FAAP and Larry K. Pickering, M.D., FIDSA, FPIDS, FAAP
  • MMWR in Review
Yellow fever is an arthropod-borne flavivirus transmitted in urban outbreaks primarily byAedes aegypti mosquitoes. In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was declared in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (see map at bottom). From Jan. 4 to Aug. 18, 2016, 410 suspected cases of yellow fever including 42 deaths were reported from the Kongo Central Province, which borders Angola, where another outbreak had occurred five months prior. As a result, the DRC ministry of health initiated mass vaccination campaigns in the Kongo Central Province where approximately 1.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered. Of note, DRC requires proof of yellow fever vaccine in anyone 9 months of age and older upon entering the country.
Paules and Fauci reported on a yellow fever outbreak in southeast Brazil this year and warned of possible travel-related cases in the United States (N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1397-1399, http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1702172).
Preventing travel-associated infections
Pediatricians and other health care professionals should be familiar with travel-associated infectious diseases, including arthropod-borne infections, and the areas in which they are endemic, especially as families embark on international travel this summer.
Yellow fever is one of the few vaccine-preventable arboviruses. Yellow fever vaccine confers life-long immunity, and patients are given a “Yellow Card” to show proof of vaccination. Practitioners should be comfortable with the indications and contraindications of yellow fever vaccine and other travel vaccines and know the availability of travel vaccines in their area (see resources). At time of publication, there was a shortage of yellow fever vaccine.
Public health and clinical applications of travel-related illness
Up to 60% of children will become ill during international travel, and up to 19% will require medical care. Medical planning for international travel requires six to eight weeks.
Pre-travel consultation with a primary care physician or in a travel clinic should include a review of the child’s or adolescent’s medications, allergies and prior vaccinations. Providers should ensure all routinely recommended immunizations are up to date with special consideration for vaccines that may be given earlier or on an accelerated schedule to infants, children or adolescents depending on place of travel. Specifically, measles-mumps-rubella vaccine should be administered to infants 6 through 12 months of age before international travel. Additional vaccines to prevent yellow fever, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, rabies and Japanese encephalitis may be indicated depending on destination and type of travel.
Information on location-specific infection risks provided in the AAP Red Book and the CDC Yellow Book can further direct preventive measures (see resources). It is important to discuss planned activities to offer anticipatory guidance, such as infectious exposures related to water sports and spelunking, and to give tips related to food and water hygiene. Travel vaccines, malaria prophylaxis and self-treatment for traveler’s diarrhea should be considered. Advice about mosquito bite prevention should be given, including using nets, screens and repellent.
Additionally, prescription renewals of medications (including epinephrine auto-injectors if appropriate) should be given accounting for additional quantity depending on length of travel. A brief letter explaining the medications could be helpful for overseas travelers who may be stopped by customs at their destinations.
Which of the following vaccines are available to prevent travel-related infections, depending on the destination of international travel?
A. Yellow fever vaccine
B. Japanese encephalitis vaccine
C. Rabies vaccine
D. Typhoid vaccine
E. All of the above
Answer: E
Dr. Bloch is a pediatric infectious diseases fellow, PGY-4, at Emory University. Dr. Pickering was editor of the AAP Red Book from 2000-’12. He is adjunct professor of pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine.
Source

FDA Approves Investigational Yellow Fever Vaccine for Travelers, June 2017

A yellow fever outbreak in Brazil that began in December of 2016 has continued to grow in this and several other South American countries, leading to shortages of the conventional vaccine for the virus for Americans looking to travel Brazil and other affected areas. Now an alternative vaccine available in other countries has received approval in the United States, and can be found in vaccination clinics around the country.

Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne virus which has caused outbreaks in North America centuries ago and is now mostly isolated to tropical and subtropical parts of Africa and South America. Aedes and Haemagogus mosquitos transmit the virus from infected humans and non-human primates. Most people who become infected with yellow fever do not present with symptoms or only exhibit mild illness. When symptoms do occur, they typically develop within 3 to 6 days of infection and can include fever, severe headache, chills, back and body aches, and nausea. While symptoms clear in most infected individuals, infection can become more severe in about 15% of cases after a brief remission period. This can result in high fever, jaundice, bleeding, and even organ failure. Up to half of those who develop severe yellow fever symptoms die from the virus.

In Brazil, a large outbreak of yellow fever has continued to grow. According to a recent situation summary from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Brazil has reported 3,192 suspected cases since December. Of those, health officials have confirmed 758 cases, discarded 1812, and is continuing to investigate 622 cases. Brazil’s Ministry of Health has reported 426 deaths linked to the outbreak, making it a 34% fatality rate among confirmed cases. In addition, the country has reported 3,660 deaths in non-human primates since the start of the outbreak, with yellow fever confirmed to be the cause of 565 deaths, and 1467 deaths still under investigation.

While the outbreak has largely remained in low population areas of Brazil, the recent PAHO update notes that health officials have directed available reserves of the yellow fever vaccine, YF-VAX, to preventing these outbreaks from spreading into more populated, urban areas. In recent months 24.5 million doses of YF-VAX have gone to a selective vaccination strategy in more than 1,000 Brazilian municipalities. As a result, 285 municipalities in the country have achieved more than 95% vaccination coverage, while 375 municipalities have achieved between 74% and 94.9% coverage. However, this outbreak in Brazil coupled with the ongoing outbreak in Angola have led to the depletion of the vaccine supply. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently stated that YF-VAX maker Sanofi Pasteur announced that the vaccine will be unavailable until mid-2018. For American travelers visiting countries requiring yellow fever vaccination, Sanofi Pasteur has recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to distribute Stamaril, an alternative vaccine that offers active immunization against the virus in a single-dose injection. Stamaril is already available in more than 70 countries. Now, in the United States the vaccine has been FDA-approved through an Expanded Access Investigational New Drug Application, meaning that it is still considered investigational. Due to this limitation, “Sanofi Pasteur can support only a limited number of sites,” including several US vaccination clinics; however, the pharmaceutical company is working with the CDC to expand distribution of and access to the vaccine.

The CDC recommends one dose of the yellow fever vaccine for those ages 9 months or older who are traveling to areas experiencing outbreaks of the virus, or to countries in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America where the virus is endemic and intermittently epidemic. Those travelling to Brazil or other countries with active yellow fever outbreaks should receive the Stamaril vaccineat least 10 days before entering an affected area to ensure they’ve receive protective immunity. The World Health Organization Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization notes that one dose of the vaccine offers lifelong protection from the yellow fever virus.
Source

Friday, May 12, 2017

CDC Now Recommends Cholera Vaccine Before Travel, may 2017

Adults between the ages of 18 and 64 years are recommended to receive one dose of the lyophilized CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora, PaxVax) cholera vaccine before travel to areas with active cholera transmission, according to a recommendations published May 11 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices initiallyrecommended use of the cholera vaccine in June 2016 to prevent cholera in adult travelers to areas with endemic or epidemic cholera.
The live attenuated oral lyophilized CVD 103-HgR, the first and only vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and licensed for use in the United States, prevents disease caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria of serogroup O1, which is responsible for more than 99% of global cases. The vaccine does not protect against V cholerae O139, according to the World Health Organization. The vaccine should be administered at least 10 days before travel, according to the US Food and Drug Administration.
"The primary prevention strategy for cholera is consistent access to and exclusive use of safe water and food and frequent handwashing," write Karen K. Wong, MD, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, and colleagues. "Nonetheless, travelers to areas of active cholera transmission, which include areas with current or recent endemic or epidemic cholera activity, might be exposed to toxigenic V. cholerae O1 through inadvertent or unexpected means, despite efforts to adhere to prevention measures."
Cholera is endemic in approximately 60 countries and is the source of epidemics, causing approximately 2.9 million cases and 95,000 deaths each year.
Those considered at higher risk for cholera exposure in endemic or epidemic areas include "travelers visiting friends and relatives, health care personnel, cholera outbreak response workers, and persons traveling to or living in a cholera-affected area for extended periods."
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Cholera Vaccine Work Group assessed evidence for the vaccine's safety and efficacy and the epidemiology of cholera worldwide, using clinical trial data from both the current lyophilized CVD 103-HgR and a previous CVD 103-HgR formulation used abroad and discontinued for business reasons unrelated to safety or efficacy. According to findings presented at the August 2015 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting, the vaccine is 90% effective 10 days after vaccination and 80% effective 3 months after vaccination against severe diarrhea, with no serious adverse events reported in clinical studies. Both formulations induced a vibriocidal antibody response, "the best available correlate of protection against cholera infection," the authors state.
The only adverse event statistically different between groups was mild diarrhea, occurring in 3.8% of vaccine recipients compared with 1.6% of unvaccinated groups.
Overall safety data, however, were limited, given the relatively limited number of people who received the currently available formulation. In addition, there are no data regarding the coadministration of the cholera vaccine with other vaccines.
Furthermore, there are no data are available for safety or efficacy of booster doses of the vaccine or protection duration beyond 3 months.
Vaccine recipients should not have received oral or parenteral antibiotics in the 14 days before vaccine administration; effects of antibiotics taken after vaccination are unknown, according to the authors. Recipients should wait at least 10 days after vaccine administration to take chloroquine. Data are unavailable regarding potential interaction with the oral live-attenuated typhoid vaccine, but taking the typhoid vaccine at least 8 hours after the cholera vaccine may decrease potential interference.
Lyophilized CVD 103-HgR may shed in stool with the potential for transmission to close contacts. A week after administration, 11.1% of recipients had cultures of the vaccine strain in stool, but the strain was not found in any of 28 household contacts of recipients 7 days after vaccination. However, with the previous CVD 103-HgR vaccine, seroconversion was seen in 3.7% of family contacts of vaccine recipients at 9 or 28 days postvaccination.
Although no data exist on using CVD 103-HgR in pregnant or breast-feeding women, "maternal exposure to the vaccine is not expected to result in exposure of the fetus or breastfed infant to the vaccine" because of lack of systemic absorption of the vaccine. "However, the vaccine strain might be shed in stool for ≥7 days after vaccination, and theoretically, the vaccine strain could be transmitted to an infant during vaginal delivery," the authors write.
Those with history of a severe allergic reaction to components of this or previous cholera vaccines should not receive it. No data exist on the lyophilized CVD 103-HgR vaccine's use in immunocompromised populations; a previous CVD 103-HgR formulation showed lower vibriocidal seroconversion among HIV-positive (58%) individuals than among HIV-negative (71%) ones with no significant differences in adverse events.
The work group summarized the strength of current evidence from randomized controlled trials and observational studies at the February 2016 meeting for outcomes for "prevention of cholera death, life-threatening cholera diarrhea, severe cholera diarrhea, and cholera diarrhea of any severity" and for "induction of vibriocidal antibody response, occurrence of serious and systemic adverse events, and impact on effectiveness of co-administered vaccines and medications." Efficacy evidence was judged to be of type 1 (highly reliable), using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Safety outcome evidence was determined to be type 3.
The research was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:482-485. Full text

Friday, May 5, 2017

U.S. Supply Of Yellow Fever Vaccine Will Run Out By Midsummer 2017

U.S. authorities are working on an emergency deal to import the yellow fever vaccine Stamaril, which is not currently licensed in the U.S.
BSIP/UIG via Getty Images
Come July, the yellow fever vaccine could be tough to find.
So, if you're traveling this summer to a place with the disease, you probably want to schedule a trip to a clinic sooner rather than later, the Centers for Diseases for Control and Prevention tells NPR.
"Take heed of our warning: Plan ahead," says CDC spokesperson Tom Skinner. "It may be difficult to get this vaccine. And if you can't get it, then you should postpone your trip."
The U.S. supply of the yellow fever vaccine will run out by about midsummer, the CDCreported Friday in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Officials are working on an emergency importation of an alternative vaccine, which is already licensed Europe, but is not currently licensed in the U.S. Even then, there will be a limited number of doses, available at only a small number of clinics, Skinner says.
"We're going from the yellow fever vaccine being available in 4,000 clinics across the country to only 250 clinics," he says.
Yellow fever is surging around the world. Last year, a large outbreak in Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo triggered a massive immunization campaign, in which 30 million people received the vaccine.


That outbreak depleted the global supply of the yellow fever vaccine several times and forced the World Health Organization to give fractional doses of the shot.
Now, a growing outbreak in Brazil has health officials stretching the global supply once again. Health officials are concerned that outbreak could spread across South America and even into the U.S.
"Right now, we don't have enough vaccine for everyone in Brazil," says Dr. Anthony Fauci of the National Institutes of Health. "We're going to have to make more vaccine. And that will take time."
There is currently only one yellow fever vaccine licensed in the U.S. The pharmaceutical company Sanofi Pasteur manufactures it. It's called YF-VAX.
Back in 2015, Sanofi Pasteur began updating its manufacturing facility for YF-VAX. And it stopped production of the vaccine. The company planned to have enough doses to cover U.S. demand until the new facility opens in 2018, but "manufacturing complications resulted in the loss of a large number of doses," the company writes in the MMWR.
The supply will run out in a few months, so the FDA has given Sanofi Pasteur emergency approval to import a second vaccine, called Stamaril. It has a similar safety profile and effectiveness as YF-VAX. It's already approved in 70 countries.
It's rare for the FDA to grant emergency approval to import an unlicensed vaccine. The last time that occurred was in 2013 when a meningitis B outbreak hit Princeton University.
"The yellow fever vaccine is really important," Skinner says. "We're doing everything we can to make sure people who need it can still get it."
If you're taking an international trip soon, check to see if the CDC recommends a yellow fever vaccine for your destination. And, if it does, go get it now, Skinner says.
Source